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What is Arrayed Waveguide Grating or AWG?

A grating is any regularly spaced collection of essentially identical, parallel, elongated elements. In optics, optical gratings are images having the characteristic pattern of alternating, parallel lines. The lines alternate between high and low reflectance (black-white gratings) or high and low transmittance (transparent-opaque gratings). In fiber optics, optical gratings have applications in signal transmission. What is Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) in fiber optics?