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How two optical fibers are spliced?

In fiber joining mechanism, how two optical fibers are spliced together?

Current method of splicing is done by fusion splicing. In fusion splicing, two optical fibers are placed face to face after stripping out the coating material. The bare fibers will have core and cladding. Splicing machine automatically detects the cladding and core and do the alignment to make them geometrically opposite to each other.

Once the fibers are placed nearly perfect in position, a small electric arc is produced to melt the silica glass. The arc will melt the cladding and core by fusing the silica glass. Fusion splicing is a permanent connection method, that is, it combines two optical fibers physically. In contrast to fusion splicing, there are temporary splicing methods that depends on some kind of connectorization and refractive index matching gel. Fusion splicing produces the lowest connection losses, typically in the range of 0 dB to 0.05 dB that are ideal for long haul network installations, where accumulated attenuation plays a major role.

Yes, fusion splicing is an effective way to fuse two fiber optics, the fiber splicing machine needed is expensive and the operation technician needs skill.